In photography, the Sunny 16 rule (also known as the Sunny f/16 rule) is a method of estimating correct daylight exposures without a light meter. Apart from the obvious advantage of independence from a light meter, the Sunny 16 rule can also aid in achieving correct exposure of difficult subjects. As the rule is based on incident light, rather than reflected light as with most camera light meters, very bright or very dark subjects are compensated for. The rule serves as a mnemonic for the camera settings obtained on a sunny day using the exposure value (EV) system.

The basic rule is, “On a sunny day set aperture to f/16 and shutter speed to the [reciprocal of the] ISO film speed [or ISO setting] for a subject in direct sunlight.” For example:

On a sunny day and with ISO 100 film / setting in the camera, one sets the aperture to f/16 and the shutter speed to 1/100 or 1/125 second (on some cameras 1/125 second is the available setting nearest to 1/100 second).

On a sunny day with ISO 200 film / setting and aperture at f/16, set shutter speed to 1/200 or 1/250.

On a sunny day with ISO 400 film / setting and aperture at f/16, set shutter speed to 1/400 or 1/500.

As with other light readings, shutter speed can be changed as long as the f-number is altered to compensate, e.g. 1/250 second at f/11 gives equivalent exposure to 1/125 second at f/16.

An elaborated form of the Sunny 16 rule is to set shutter speed nearest to the reciprocal of the ISO film speed / setting and f-number according to this table:


Lighting Conditions 

Shadow Detail 



Dark with sharp edges 





Slight Overcast 

Soft around edges 



Barely visible 


Heavy Overcast 

No shadows 


Open Shade/Sunset 

No shadows 

Add One Stop 



from Wikipedia






Night is defined as the period between sunset and sunrise. Thus, the amount of illumination provided by the sun will vary considerably. Depending on the time of the month, illumination from moonlight will vary. What other light sources might affect the object(s) being photographed?

As will become evident, there is a vast variation in subjects that can be photographed at night. Will one be photographing in the city or out in the desert? Will the light source be moving or static?

What equipment should one use and how should one use it?

Ideally, your camera should have the capability to manually set focus, shutter speed, and aperture. Shutter speeds of up to 30 seconds and/or a setting for a bulb exposure are necessary so that the shutter may be open for relatively long exposures.

Because exposure times will be relatively long, a tripod is necessary. In addition, can the tripod and the camera be placed in a position where people will not stand in front of it or periodically walk in front of you? If one can’t use a tripod, is there a stable platform such as a railing or car roof the camera can rest on?

A remote release should be used. This further ensures that there will be no camera movement during the photograph. If the subject being photographed is static (none moving) then you might use the camera’s self timer. A cable release can be used together with “bulb” exposures. If possible, lock the camera’s mirror in the “up” position

If there are nearby light sources that might adversely affect your exposure time, use a lens hood.

How well does your camera’s exposure meter work at night? Should you have a separate hand-held meter?

Be sure to take enough film or memory cards.

Carry additional batteries.

And definitely have a small flashlight.

Take a stopwatch! Trying to read a sweep second hand on a wristwatch or counting seconds, one one thousand, two one thousand, etc. is less than accurate.

If you are going into a remote area, think about three additional items; a large flashlight, a portable GPS unit, and a cell-phone.

Should I use a Film or Digital Camera?

Either a film or a digital camera can be used for nighttime photography. There are certain common characteristics that are important.

With a film camera, depending upon the subject being photographed, there is a choice of film ISO ratings. Film rated at 100 will work well, especially for static subjects. I prefer using a film rated at ISO 400. For example, assume one is using a lens setting of F8.0. If with ISO 100 film, the exposure duration will be two (2) seconds, with ISO 400 film, exposure will require only ½ second. There are situations, such as recording movement for example, such as cars passing by, when you may want the two (2) second exposure (or even longer). But for static images, higher ISO values reduce blur.

If one needs to “freeze” or slow down motion effects, a film rated at ISO 1600 may be necessary. In addition, the “effective” ISO rating can be elevated by developing the film “as if it were exposed as ISO 3200 film.” There will be a grain effect at these higher values.

An advantage of the digital camera is the ability to change the ISO rating with each photograph.

Digital cameras are changing rapidly. The safest prediction is that they will be better and cheaper in a year or less. In May 2008, I purchased a Nikon D300 in order to photograph inside of dark buildings using available light. I can use a setting of ISO 3200 with minimal or no grain effect. A year ago, that would have not been possible.

Color can vary tremendously at night. For film, I use a standard daylight ASA 400 film. When photographing with a digital camera, I set white balance to auto.

Because night photography can be highly variable, with very bright and very dark areas in the same photograph, it is important to understand how your camera meters light. You may wish to use a hand-held light meter, particularly if you are using the manual settings on the camera. On a digital camera, the histogram function will help to determine if your exposure is satisfactory.

Using auto focus when it is dark might not work well with some cameras. Try to set the shot using auto focus. When it “locks in,” switch to manual focus. Then, if you are bracketing your shot by using different exposure times and/or varying the lens opening, you will maintain the focus.

Bracketing is something one should do. Use values that are above and below the value you believe is ideal. One advantage of a digital camera is the ability to review an image or images. Even though the newest cameras allow one to see the photograph as you compose it, I would still recommend bracketing. While not the subject of this discussion, this technique will allow the production of high definition photographs.

Because digital camera capabilities have changed so rapidly within a short time, I recommend reviewing your camera’s manual. This is particularly useful if you are taking nighttime photographs for the first time. Many digital cameras have special features for night time photography.

One caution is that older digital cameras tend to create “digital noise” with longer exposure times. Newer digital cameras utilize noise reduction technology. Luminance control is one method. Luminance is defined as the luminous intensity of a light source per unit area. (Remember that in night time photography there is often a wide variation with multiple areas of very bright and very dark.) Dark frame subtraction is another technique. Because CCD sensors are not perfect, one can see hot spots when looking at an image that required a longer exposure. This problem is corrected by the camera automatically taking a second exposure without opening the shutter. The hot spots will still be recorded and then can be removed from the first image. It is worthwhile to know that if your camera does not have this as an automatic capability, one can take a photograph with the lens cap in place, and later, in photoshop, perform a similar operation

Shooting Modes and the Digital Camera. Have you noticed that if you select a shooting mode of Auto (A) or Program Auto (P), your night pictures always come out too dark? They are simply underexposed. Why is that — if your camera’s shutter speed ranges up to 10 or 30 seconds?
Check your camera’s User’s Manual. Are all the shutter speeds available in Auto or P mode? Many digital cameras do not make the whole shutter speed range available in A and P mode! If the slowest shutter speed available in A and P mode is only 1/3 second, that’s not satisfactory for night photography. To access the longer shutter speeds, select one of the other shooting modes, such as Shutter-Priority, or switch to full Manual mode.
Be sure that your digital camera has full Manual mode and allows access to the full range of slow shutter speeds in that mode.


Many years ago, I had the opportunity to photograph with Ralph Gibson. One sage bit of advice he told me was, “Always have a plan for what you want to photograph. You’ll get better photos. This doesn’t mean that if, by chance, you encounter an unexpected opportunity that you should pass it by.”

Night time photography generally requires more advance planning than day time photography. Usually you will be traveling at least one way in the dark. Do you know your route? Do you know where you can park? For example, some public areas are closed to parking during the dark hours.

The times of sundown and sunup as well as when the moon will be rising as well as the phase of the moon can be important. Light from the sun and moon may offer opportunities for a better photograph. The hours of twilight can provide wonderful illumination and colors.

What is the weather forecast? Changing weather conditions are usually less apparent at night.

Even in the summer you may need a jacket or sweater. I remember getting up at 4:00 A.M. to take sunrise photos while I was at Palm Beach, Florida. It was very uncomfortable waiting for the sunrise and some warmer air. Bug spray may save both body and soul in the summer, particularly if you are near water or woodlands. While you may not need a sandwich, one or two bottles of water can be very welcome if you are out for many hours.

There are exceptions but usually a flash is NOT useful. The camera built-in flash units have a very limited range. If you feel a flash may be useful, use a high quality accessory flash unit.

With objects that are reasonably near, one can create some interesting photographs by “painting” objects with a flashlight. A hand-held flash that is periodically fired during a time exposure can also provide additional interest. Coupled with your accessory light, think about using colored cellophane or colored gels in front of the light. These gels can also be placed in front of your lens. If you are “painting” with a flashlight and are walking about in front of your camera, wear dark clothing. Because you are not standing in one spot, your image may be barely seen in the resulting photograph. Obviously, your image is less noticed after a 30-second vs. a 10-second exposure.

My film cameras allow for multiple double exposures of the same film frame. Digital images generally require manipulation with programs such as Photoshop to achieve the same effect.

On your digital camera, if you can, set the LCD brightness to Normal, not Bright.

If your camera has a “night scene” mode, try that first.

And almost last, but not least, patience is a virtue. You shouldn’t become easily frustrated because the moon is not moving fast enough to get that perfect reflection shot in the lake.

Finally, particularly with a digital camera, take lots of images. Bracket your exposures. Vary the timing and the lens openings.

Use your past experience to improve future photography. And most of all, ENJOY!


Learning what all those buttons and dials do. Cameras can initially be very intimidating. But learning the basic operation of one’s camera will mean better photographs and less frustration.

While this article will cover the basics of camera operation, one should read their camera manual as cameras vary in how they operate.

Rule #1 is always have your camera’s manual available.

Generally, four factors can be varied. These are the lens (focal length), the lens opening (aperture), the shutter speed, and ISO ( a measure of the sensitivity to light). I’ll explain each variable and suggest when each is more important..

Two types of camera are most common today. These are the Point and Shoot and the Single Lens Reflex (SLR) cameras. The capabilities of each can vary widely.

The Lens – A major difference in the two types is that a SLR camera has interchangeable lenses; a Point ans Shoot camera does not. However, while one can change from a close-up lens to a telephoto lens on a SLR camera, many Point and Shoot cameras have zoom lenses. Caution.. Ignore digital zoom. Only optical zoom matters when evaluating Point and Shoot cameras.

The focal length of a lens determines what the camera “sees”. A short focal length lens allows a wide field of view. They are useful when the subject of the photograph is close to the camera. A long focal length lens has a narrow field of view but magnifies distant objects. Zoom lenses allow one to vary the focal length.

The Aperture – The lens opening controls the amount of light that reaches the recording medium, both film and digital sensor. Lens openings are measured in f stops. A small number such as f2.0 is a large opening. A large number such as f22 is a small opening. Obviously, a large opening lets in more light and a small opening less light. The other important difference is that a large opening has less depth of field. Depth of field is a measure of how sharp an image is from front to back. For example is one is taking a portrait type photo, it is helpful to have the background out-of-focus (slightly blurred). The effect is to cause the viewer to look primarily at the portrait and ignore any distraction in the background. Another important factor is when one is recording action and one wants the object to be sharp, An f value of 2.6 allows for a shorter exposure time that results in a sharper image of the object in motion. Conversely, one may want to a blur effect that conveys motion. An f stop of f11 or f`16 means a longer exposure time. The result is the background is sharp and the subject is blurred.

The Shutter Speed – Shutter speed is a measure of how long the film or sensor is exposed to light. It has a reciprocal relationship to the aperture. Long shutter speeds allow one to use a small aperture. Conversely, short shutter speeds require a larger aperture. The same amount of light can enter by adjusting the ratio of shutter speed to aperture. Stopping motion requires a high shutter speed; maximum depth of field (focus) requires a small aperture (high f number).

ISO or Film Speed – The ISO (International Standard Organization) value refers to how sensitive the film or the sensor are to light. A higher ISO number means more sensitivity. With a film camera one is limited by the ISO value of the film in the camera. Digital cameras allow the user to reset the ISO for each photograph. Higher ISO values are generally available with digital cameras; thus one can take photographs in with less available light.

Which setting should one use? Both types of digital camera generally allow one to set a preference and then the camera automatically adjusts other parameters. Typical settings include the following choices.

Program (P) Mode – Program mode allows the user to have the camera set both aperture and shutter speed. Digital cameras are a special type of computer. Based on what the camera is sensing, it sets the values for shutter speed and aperture based on values calculated from thousands of test images that have been stored in the camera’s memory.

Aperture Priority (A) Mode – Aperture Priority allows the user to set the aperture (lens opening) and the camera then calculates the shutter speed necessary for a proper exposure based on the ISO value of the sensor and the amount of light entering the camera. Aperture is important when one wants to ensure the depth of field or wants a wider angle of view.

Shutter Priority (S) Mode – The Shutter Priority mode means the user will set the shutter speed and the camera will set the appropriate aperture for proper exposure. This setting is important if one wishes to “freeze” action such as when taking photographs at a sporting event.

Manual Mode (M) Mode – Using Manual Mode allows the user to set both Aperture and Shutter Speed independent of each other and independent of the ISO value. In addition, the user manually sets the focus point of the subject.

This article is about basics. Many camera also have other settings, The most important is White Balance (WB). The type of light that is exposing the sensor varies in its characteristic. Sunlight is different from artificial lights. The time of day affects the characteristics of sunlight. There are many types of artificial light; tungsten, various fluorescent lights, flash lamps, etc. They particularly affect how the sensor will record colors. Many cameras allow the user to have the camera determine the best white balance.

Finally, settings such as Night Mode, Portrait Mode, Black and White Mode, may be available on your camera. Each of these settings allow the camera to set aperture and shutter speeds based on the information stored on the camera’s internal memory.

Remember, read the manual for your camera. And have fun with your photography.